"No Fly Zone" in italiano vuol dire una zona in cui non si può volare. Larisoluzione 1973dell'ONU si riferisce a questo. La sua applicazione in Libia è per lo meno estesa, presa un po' alla larga. Il primo intervento francese infatti ha colpito dei carri armati volanti vicino a Bengasi. Il carro armato volante è un'invenzione libica, la solita arma segreta dei dittatori, come laV2 di Hitler, il primo missile a distanza. Sarkozy non si è fatto sorprendere. Gli americani e gli inglesi hanno poi bombardato raso terra Tripoli e Sirte, in particolare si sono concentrati sul bunker volante di Gheddafi. Un'applicazione rigorosa della "No Fly Zone".Khamis, un figlio di Gheddafi, sarebbe stato ucciso a Tripoli. Testimoni oculari lo hanno visto mentre volava come Icaro nei cieli della Tripolitania a dispetto delle indicazioni delle Nazioni Unite. Se un ospedale si alzerà in volo, un missile tomahawk colpirà implacabile. http://www.beppegrillo.it/2011/03/no_fly_zone/index.html
Rebels hold a young man at gunpoint, who they accuse of being a
loyalist to Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, between the towns of Brega and Ras
Lanuf, March 3, 2011. REUTERS/Goran Tomasevic
Within the nooks and creeks, even difficult for the Libyans
themselves to find them are most probably black Africans, scared stiff to sneak
out of their hide-outs because of the inevitable confusion with “African
mercenaries” and facing mob justice. reports coming out indicate that most of
these people are living under very precarious conditions which include food and
Reports on Al Jazeera show a Ghanaian migrant who claims that
black people are being caught, armed and sent to battle front, even though they
might not have an idea about what the trigger is even meant for! The effect of
the use of “foreign mercenaries”, if true, has completely poisoned the budding
Libyan Revolution. The real weapon that has been unleashed by Gaddafi is not
those miserable mercenaries, but the reduction of the dignity of the Libyan
Revolution into an insane xenophobic tantrum. The people of Libya who have aided
these Africans to escape, without even asking to be paid, need to be mentioned
and thanked and to balance the perspectives, and encourage such positive
tendencies still found within the Libyan communities and individuals who do not
see all black Africans as mercenaries.
There is no need to allow this to
draw a wedge between the democratic forces who are in charge of the on-going
struggle to free themselves from the longest ruling dictator in the world.
Gaddafi's only olive branch to Pan-Africanism has been under the condition that
we crown him as our “King of Kings”. So we are not confused at all, and can
understand why the good people of Libya would want to get rid of him. But the
People's Revolution in Libya, unlike the ones in all the other Arab countries
which have so far enjoyed our unalloyed solidarity, is being dangerously diluted
with politically toxic and and extremely alarming systematic and sporadic
attacks on black African migrants living in Libya.
International was among the first international organisations that cried out as
soon as the first violent attack on unarmed protesters occurred:
shocked and horrified by the reckless abandon and the extents taken by the
Libyan authorities, including reports of the hiring of foreign mercenaries to
kill and maim peaceful protesters by a leader who prides himself as being
“democratic” in his own Green Book!
As the third largest supplier of
Europe's oil, and by far the biggest customer of Gadaffi, the carnage going on
must be clearly condemned and further measures taken to ensure the will of the
good people of Libya prevails!”
The International Solidarity Committee of
the Pan-Africanist International stands firmly in support of the heroic people
of Libya. We stand with them in this great hour of need! We urgently call upon
the international community to do something now!” See: http://www.panafricanistinternational.org/
we call upon the leaders of civil societies in Libya to urgently take visible
steps to restore the right of these Africans to the same human rights they are
fighting for, otherwise their revolution is void ab initio. Already, people who
never really liked what their limited understanding of what the Libyan
revolution represents are furiously presenting all Libyans as racists. We know
that this is certainly false. But as stories of harassments continue to pour
out, these sentiments would be repeated across black Africa, particularly by
those who want to create a wedge and frustrate the Pan-Africanist
We call upon Colonel Gaddafi to ensure the safety of black
Africans. We believe that just as the Libyan government and the opposition are
agreed upon their rejection of US offers of “No Fly Zone”, we call upon both
sides of the warring parties to reject the maltreatment of foreign migrants who
have been living peacefully and working to help improve the Libyan economy and
to improve their own lives. We don't see this as a crime. The are your brothers
and sisters. They need help. Please help them!
A mercenary and an
immigrant; a story of black Africans and Libya
by Rosebell How
do you prove that you are just an immigrant not a mercenary? It's a question I
have been pondering on the week and it's a situation that thousands of Africans
stuck in the Libya uprising have to deal with, that is if they are given
Sub Saharan Africans had not surfaced much in the story of the
protests and revolutions that have swept across North Africa until Libyans
decided to take on Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, their leader for the last four
Protests first broke out in Libya on 15 February 2011 and a few
days after that the international media got its juicy story of foreign fighters
working for Gaddafi. It wasn't long the term 'African mercenaries' came into
To me it was like I was aback to one of my secondary school
history classes about events in the 19th or 20th century and stories of African
men taken to the fight in “world wars” where they had no idea.
African mercenaries term was coined, there had been the African the migrant. The
'possible mass migration' of Africans to Europe was one of the very first
stories about Africans and the Libya protests to hit the international scene. It
was about the fear European countries had that Libya, one of the main routes
forAfrican immigrants, could pose them a problem if it plunged in state of
Gaddafi who had been helpful in significantly reducing the
numbers of African immigrants crossing to Europe through pacts with EU members,
then rushed to use this as a bargaining chip as the protests spread. And the
African the migrant at this point became both a weapon and a threat. Actually
the BBC reporter based in Nairobi said “The fear with Libya is that sub-Saharan
Africans will try to leave and there are more of them.”
Out of a
population of about seven million people in Libya, about one million are
believed to be from sub-Saharan African countries. There are no concrete
figures. Reports claimed that about three quarters of these Africans are sort of
on a waiting list to try by any means to cross to Europe.
After the story
of the African -the immigrant, came the African -the mercenary as Gaddafi became
increasingly violent and killing hundreds of Libyans. Social networks and
twitter were abuzz with words African mercenaries, some with outright racial
undertones. Some tweets suggested Gaddafi had “brought Africans to break into
their homes and rape their women.”
I thought ok, recent African civil wars which have been characterised by
rape used as weapon of war have not helped perceptions about the continent that
often people want to project! This rape aspect has been repeated in many tweets
although we are yet to see reports on actual cases of rape in the international
Today I watched Al Jazeera showing a tweet from Redafayr linking
mercenaries to 20 African countries where Tamoil, a Libyan petroleum company
operates. Today Reuters reported that the rebel National Libyan Council in
Benghazi, the insurgent capital said it believed Niger, Mali and Kenya were
sending troops to support Gaddafi, who is now directing his forces from
These kinds of statements can only further fuel anger among
those opposed to Gaddafi and puts more lives of immigrants held up in houses and
other hiding places in Libya at great danger. We have seen reports that indicate
dozens of immigrants have so far been killed. These are not deaths inflicted on
the 'Gaddafi's African mercenaries' but on African immigrants that have nothing
to do with the parties in the conflict.
We have seen slow reaction and
attention on international scene and on the part of the African Union and
African countries on the mercenary issue. We have not seen bold statements
against these xenophobic attacks.
In Uganda we have instead seen a
national broadcaster sack two journalists over broadcasting of events in Libya
and we don't expect much from government to try and tell the nation that there
is no Ugandan Libya as a mercenary. In Zimbabwe, Bob is busy charging anyone who
mentions anything close to Libya with treason. It's important that these
countries come out and tell the world what is happening.
Kenya has done a
lot to evacuate its citizens and others from the East African region. I know
that an MP last week called on the country to investigate if young Kenyans who
had gone to Islamic schools in Libya might be among the said mercenaries but yet
to hear progress. Nigeria is continuing to evacuate its citizens from Libya but
many other immigrants from other African countries are still stuck and
governments are simply not doing much. I was shocked to see a Ugandan embassy
employee saying if it hadn't been for Kenya she would have died in
U.N. officials have warned that the latest charges from the
council in Benghazi could escalate attacks on African migrants in rebel-held
areas. We are yet to see the full coverage of the story of the African 'the
mercenary' in Libya. We have seen a few pictures that came from protesters but
the story is one of the hard ones to get and it will probably take as long as
the uprising itself to know the entire story.
While there have been
reports of many kind Libyans volunteering to watch over those immigrants that
made it to camps, generally many on the continent fear that the impact of racial
discrimination not only against immigrants but also black Libyans will continue
to be manifested alongside the story of the African mercenary.
take long to see a positive story for instance on what African immigrants have
contributed to the Libyan economy and how their absence could be felt in either
post Gaddafi or post protests Libya. Ultimately the absence of a sub Saharan
media will continue to put the African story to hands of foreign media whose
plates are often to full too do it justice.
Con la galleria La Mimosa, (cisterna di latina) stiamo organizzando una mostra di pittura sull'immigrazione, quindi sulla presenza degli stranieri che vivono sul territorio pontino "i colori del mondo" la cui inaugurazione ci sarà sabato 12 marzo (AIUTO)... se conosci artisti (pittori/scultori) di etnie diverse, non italiani, che vivono nel lazio e sono interessati ad esporre ti chiediamo la cortesia di girare loro il messaggio e di metterli in contatto con noi con una certa URGENZA .... Con la presente siamo ad informare che relativamente alla mostra I Colori del Mondo, gli artisti che vogliono prendere parte all'iniziativa, sono convocati per portare le proprie opere ( un massimo di 3 per artista) sabato 5 marzo ( chiamare e concordare gli orari per trovare la curatrice e gli organizzatori ELEONORA GENTILE 334/9833437 oppure PATRIZIO VERONESE 340/9706622)
Si possono portare le opere anche mercoledì 9 e giovedì 10 ( chiamare MARIO SPIGARIOL 329/7436995) Ricordiamo inoltre che il tema dell'allestimento è il viaggio: le opere saranno divise per cromatismi:
1- PRIMA SEZIONE: La partenza e l'abbandono dalla terra natale: dominano i colori scuri
2- SECONDA SEZIONE viaggio/ la speranza/le illusioni/le aspettative: dominano rossi, i colori passionali di un viaggio magari sofferto ma vissuto con patos 3- TERZA SEZIONE l'arrivo/ nuova vita/: colori verdi della speranza , il bianco, l'oro....la speranza a nuova vita
The United Nations Security Council on Sunday adopted a resolution imposing
sanctions on Libya's leadership, a RIA Novosti correspondent reported.
The resolution introduces "targeted measures" against the current Libyan
government. Sanctions, designed to end violence in the African state, include a
total arms embargo, travel bans and a freeze of certain accounts.
The arms embargo was imposed on "arms and related materiel of all types,
including weapons and ammunition, military vehicles and equipment, paramilitary
equipment, and spare parts for the aforementioned," the resolution reads.
The travel ban list has 16 names, including 68-year-old Libyan leader Muammar
Gaddafi, his four sons, daughter Aisha and ten ministers and top defense and
intelligence officials, thought to be responsible for atrocities in the country.
The asset freeze concerns only Gaddafi and his five family members.
The resolution also refers an investigation into possible crimes against
humanity in the African state to the International Criminal Court.
The ICC prosecutor was invited to "address the Security Council within two
months of the adoption of this resolution and every six months thereafter on
actions taken pursuant to this resolution."
Russia's representative to the UN, Vitaly Churkin, said the resolution
introduced "targeted and precise restrictive measures against those responsible
for violence against civilians," but ruled out any possibility of military
interference into Libya's domestic affairs.
"We resolutely call on the Libyan authorities to comply with the demands of
the international community," Churkin said. "This is necessary to prevent a
full-scale civil war and to preserve Libya's sovereignty and territorial
He said Russia, a veto-wielding Security Council member, supported the
sanctions because of "serious concern over events in Libya."
"We condemn and consider absolutely inadmissible the use of military force
against peaceful demonstrations," the Russian diplomat said.
The draft resolution was put forward by France, the United Kingdon, Germany
and the United States.
informal consultations on Thursday 24 February, Council members discussed
taking action under Chapter VII of the UN Charter to impose deterrent measures
against the Libyan regime.There seemed
to be wide support for moving down that track and the UK offered to
draft some elements for further discussion once Council members had a further
briefing today.It is possible that a
formal resolution could follow quite quickly, although procedural requirements
mean that at least 24 hours must pass before a draft could be put to the vote.
briefing on the situation in Libya
by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon is expected today at 3pm.
Key Recent Developments
On 25 February the Human Rights Council met on Libya. (Libya is a
member of the Geneva-based body and this is the first time it has held a
special session on one of its own members.)The Geneva
delegates endorsed High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay’s call for an
international investigation. Pillay said “in brazen and continuing breach of
international law, the crackdown in Libya of peaceful demonstrations is
escalating alarmingly with reported mass killings, arbitrary arrests, detention
and torture of protestors…tanks, helicopters and military aircraft have
reportedly been used indiscriminately to attack the protestors, and that,
according to some sources, thousands may have been killed or injured….under
international law, any official, at any level, ordering or carrying out atrocities
and attacks can be held criminally accountable and that widespread and
systematic attacks against the civilian population may amount to crimes against
Also on 25 February, NATO called an emergency
meeting on Libya
with NATO head Anders Fogh Rasmussen saying the immediate priority would be
evacuation followed by humanitarian assistance.Rasmussen also said that NATO can act as an enabler if individual states
want to take action. He made no specific mention of a no-fly zone.On 24 February Rasmussen had said that any
intervention in Libya
would require a clear Security Council mandate.
Further media reports on 25 February indicate that
Rasmussen and EU head Catherine Ashton were expected to join an informal
meeting of EU defense ministers and that the EU had agreed to a sanctions
package against the Qaddafi regime.
February in New York, the Security Council
issued a statement (SC/10180) on the situation in Libya. It condemned the use of
force against civilians, expressed deep regret at the deaths of hundreds of
civilians, called on Libya to meet its responsibility to protect civilians and
respect international humanitarian law, called for humanitarian access,
stressed the importance of accountability, expressed concern for the safety of
foreign nationals and the Council’s intention to follow the situation closely.
Council released this statement after a briefing on Libya the same day by the head of
the UN Department of Political Affairs, B. Lynn Pascoe. The meeting was
requested by the Libyan deputy permanent representative (the mission's charge
d'affaires at the time) and there was strong
support for such a meeting by European members of the Council. It was a
closed meeting under the agenda item "peace and security in Africa" with 75 member states, including the Libyan
permanent representative, also in attendance (S/PV.6486).
February, Ibrahim Dabbashi, the deputy permanent representative at the Libyan
mission to the UN, held a press conference publically breaking from Libyan
leader Muammar al-Qaddafi’s regime and reporting the regime’s use of
mercenaries to quell peaceful demonstrations.Dabbashi called on the Security Council to take up the issue and
institute a no-fly zone and refer the situation to the ICC to investigate war
crimes being committed by Qaddafi's regime.In remarks to the press after the Security Council’s meeting on 22
February Dabbashi characterised the Libyan regime’s actions as potentially
genocidal. (Media reports indicate that Libyan envoys posted to Australia, Bangladesh,
France, India, the US,
the UN in New York and Geneva, and the Arab League have broken with
the Qaddafi regime.)
On 22 February, the
Arab League condemned the use of force against civilians and suspended Libya’s participation in the League until Libya meets its
demands to immediately stop all violence.
On 23 February the
AU issued a statement condemning the use of force against civilians, urging the
regime, in particular, to desist from making statements that could escalate the
situation and decided to send a mission to Libya to assess the situation.
On 22 February the Secretary-General’s Special Adviser on the
Prevention of Genocide, Francis Deng, and the Special Adviser on the
Responsibility to Protect, Edward Luck, said in a joint statement “widespread
and systematic attacks against civilian populations by military forces,
mercenaries, and aircraft are egregious violations of international human
rights and humanitarian law…if the reported nature and scale of such attacks
are confirmed, they may well constitute crimes against humanity, for which
national authorities should be held accountable.”
issue that has been regarded as a precursor to any action is the need for
verifiable information and this has led to the request for a Secretariat
briefing. For many members, however, the evidence of brutal violence, use of
mercenaries and refugee flows are already well documented as is the impact on
the region’s stability and indicate a clear threat to international peace and
second issue is the nature of sanctions that would have a real impact on the
Libyan regime. Targeted sanctions such as travel bans, asset freezes and arms
embargoes are slow to have impact and in the current situation would be
essentially symbolic.Broader sanctions
such as a ban on oil exports would have a real effect but raise issues for some
an issue is the capacity to enhance a sanctions resolution. A no-fly zone was
proposed by Dabbashi.There are clear
precedents for such action in the former Yugoslavia and Iraq.But such an option would need to be backed up
by air assets and it is unclear if any country or NATO is willing to take this
issue is whether economic sanctions, if they were in place over a long period
of time, would impact the local population and the related issue of
humanitarian access. (The World Food Programme has said that Libya is a net
food importer with limited agricultural production and recent events are
putting the food chain at risk.)
option for the Council is adopting a resolution containing targeted sanctions
against regime members, including also a ban on oil exports while violence
continues and a no-fly zone to deter use of Libyan air assets against civilians.
option is a resolution which contains only targeted sanctions such as asset
freezes, travel bans and an arms embargo.
option is for the Council to demand humanitarian access to areas not under
regime control in light of the responsibility to protect to warn the regime
against blocking or attacking humanitarian action.
further option is to discuss possible referral of the situation to the ICC at a
resolution will take some days to negotiate a possible immediate option is for
the Council to issue a presidential statement signaling it was considering
concrete measures to the situation in Libya.
Council and Wider Dynamics
significant majority of Council members have reacted positively to the idea of
imposing legal measures on the Libyan regime to deter further violence against
civilians. Among the measures suggested have been targeted sanctions such as an
assets freeze, travel bans and arms embargo but there also seems to be some
interest in even stronger measures such as a no-fly zone, ICC references and
language on the responsibility to protect.However, in relation to a no-fly zone, there seem to be some concerns
about progressing on this front until the safety of foreign nationals can be
resolution imposing sanctions on the Libyan regime seems to be broadly
supported by the Libyan mission to the UN in New York which publically broke
ranks with the regime on 21 February.There is also wide interest in the issue among the general UN membership
indicated by the 75 member states participating in the Council’s 22 February
both the Arab League and the AU have issued statements condemning the Libyan
regime’s excessive use of force against civilians.There also seems to be an Arab/African
initiative in the General Assembly to vote Libya off the Human Rights
and China seemed concerned about the need for verifiable information before
further action is taken.In that regard,
the Secretary-General will be briefing on the Libyan situation later this
afternoon. However, it seems that the broad support among wider UN member
states, including in the Middle East, for concrete measures against the Qaddafi
regime is an influential factor.
the refugee flows and consistent media reports of aerial bombardments and
mercenaries from Africa and Eastern Europe being used by the Libyan regime it
seems that most if not all Council members are satisfied that the Libyan
situation can now be clearly categorised as a threat to international peace and
possibility of an embargo on oil exports doesn’t seem to have any significant
support at this juncture.
appears to be taking the lead on the issue.
Security Council Press Statement
SC/10180 (22 February 2010) condemned the use of force against civilians, called
on Libya to meet its responsibility to protect civilians and stressed
Security Council Meeting Record
S/PV.6486 (22 February 2010) was an
official communiqué listing the 75 member states who participated in the
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Il massaggio Shiatsu che si effettua tramite la pressione delle dita, dei palmi delle mani e dei piedi e dei gomiti su tutto il corpo, agisce sui punti energetici considerati dall'agopuntura. Stimola la circolazione sanguigna ed il flusso linfatico, agisce sul sistema nervoso allentando la tensione muscolare più profonda, rimuove le tossine dei tessuti, risveglia il sistema ormonale e sollecita la capacità di autoguarigione del corpo.